Kirstie Buckland

Reproduction Knitted Sixteenth Century Cap Kirstie Buckland
Reproduction Knitted Sixteenth Century Cap by Kirstie Buckland

Our new Honorary President Kirstie Buckland is well known as an eminent researcher and maker of historical knitted caps. She started her making career as an apprentice with couturier Norman Hartnell working on the queenโ€™s wedding dress, and developed a lifelong interest in costume history and construction. Kirstie also has a professional background as a sheep farmer in Monmouth, Wales, and her interest and skills in spinning wool, weaving and knitting led her to the study and reproduction of medieval woollen textiles. Specialising in headgear, Kirstie became an expert on knitted caps including Tudor flat caps of the kind depicted by Breughel and Holbein (known as โ€˜Statute Capsโ€™).

Detail of a knitted sixteenth century cap as reproduced by Kirstie Buckland.
Detail of a knitted and fulled sixteenth century cap as reproduced by Kirstie Buckland.

Kirstie is much sought after as a re-creator of historical knitted caps and has completed many commissions for films, theatre and television. Kirstieโ€™s caps have graced the heads of Kenneth Branagh as Henry V, and his later production of Hamlet, Russell Croweโ€™s crew in Master and Commander, Diana Rigg in Mother Courage and Ian McKellen in An Enemy of the People, amongst others.

Kirstie Buckland presenting a paper at the Knitting History Forum Conference in November 2015
Kirstie Buckland presenting a paper at the Knitting History Forum Conference in November 2015

Kirstieโ€™s knowledge of wool and her location in Monmouth informed her seminal paper โ€˜The Monmouth Capโ€™. Her articles on caps and capping have been published in Costume, Textile History, Ars Textrina, and Text. When Henry VIIIโ€™s sunken warship โ€˜Mary Roseโ€™, lost in 1545, was located in the early 1970s with many long-hidden treasures intact, including knitted caps, Kirstie was invited to contribute to the book Before the Mast: life and death on board the Mary Rose, vol. 4 documenting the shipโ€™s contents.

Certificate awarded to Kirstie Buckland as Cap-knitter and Bonnet Maker to the Laird of Balgonie
[Details of these papers may be found in the select knitting history reading list in our Resources section. Kirstie has also written another article, ‘A Warm House For the Wits’ – The craft, trade or science of capping, which she has generously made available for download from her website.]

Dr Karen Finch and Kirstie Buckland, 2017 Knitting History Forum. Copyright Kirstie Buckland
Karen Finch and Kirstie Buckland in 2017.

Kirstie has been active in many scholarly textiles groups including the Costume Society, the Textile Society and the Medieval Dress & Textile Society alongside Karen Finch, Janet Arnold, Kenneth Ponting, Lisa Warburg and others, and was a founder member of the Early Knitting History Group, established in 1993 by Montse Stanley with Richard Rutt and Negley Harte. The EKHG was founded to encourage and share research into knitting before 1600, from which the current Knitting History Forum has grown and developed to cover all periods. As a founder member of KHF, we are delighted to have Kirstieโ€™s wealth of historical knowledge and practical experience to epitomise the breadth of interests that the KHF encompasses.

Sandy Black

Kirstie Buckland, Lise Warburg, Karen Finch and Ann Saunders
Kirstie Buckland, Lise Warburg, Karen Finch and Ann Saunders




Top image: Kirstie Buckland with one of her reproduction knitted caps, at the Knitting History Forum Conference in 2017.

Karen Finch Centenary: 8th May 2021

It is nearly three years since Knitting History Forum sadly noted the passing of our much-admired Hon. President, Dr Karen Finch. Since then, however, her legacy continues, not only in the careers of her many students or the memories of those who knew her, but also through the Karen Finch Textiles website, led with sensitivity and care by Karen’s daughter, Katrina Finch.

Throughout her long and varied career, Karen amassed a considerable archive of papers, books, images, teaching materials, textiles and much more besides, some of which is now located in teaching institutions, libraries and museums but some of which remains with her family. The website serves as a finding aid for navigating the archive across many locations. Ongoing digitisation will make these holdings available as far as possible. The online forum hosts discussion of Karen and her work as well as information and ideas on textiles and conservation. Karen’s life is celebrated through biographical posts and the many relationships she fostered are honoured through contributions from family, friends and colleagues, providing personal insight and warmth sometimes missing from online archives.

8th May 2021 marks the centenary of Karen’s birth. The continuing global pandemic has made a memorial event impossible in person, but the Karen Finch Textiles website will be launching an interactive map showing the worldwide network created by Karen’s teaching, “sustained by her dedication to maintaining regular national and international correspondence and her fundamental commitment to knowledge without boundaries.” Another addition will be the introductory lecture given by Karen to teach the Masters course in Textile Conservation, dating back to when the Textile Conservation Centre (TCC) was based in the grace-and-favour apartments at Hampton Court Palace. In future it is intended to publish the remaining lectures with their accompanying illustrations. Contributions are also invited from those who knew Karen, which would be posted on the Karen Finch Textiles website in the coming weeks. KHF members interested in sharing their memories should email Katrina Finch directly at

Visit the Karen Finch Textile website to learn more:

Karen Finch’s centenary, 8th May 2021

Knitting History Forum Sanquhar Gloves

At our previous AGM in 2019, Kirstie Buckland generously presented a pair of gloves which our Chair, Sandy Black, accepted on behalf of Knitting History Forum. The distinctive black and white knitted gloves will be familiar to long-term KHF members and supporters as we frequently use an image of one of the gloves on our website and social media. Kirstie has kindly written a little more about these very special gloves and their significance.

Knitting History Forum/Early Knitting History Group Reconstruction Knitted Sanquhar Glove courtesy of Kirstie Buckland. PLEASE DO NOT USE IMAGE WITHOUT PERMISSIONWhen discussing the Castle Howard sock we once talked of having a section for ‘knitting myths’ to share some of the funnier ones. However, such myths should not be confused with symbolism and its roots.

Many KHF notices appear beneath a photograph of a single Sanquhar glove knitted in the ‘Duke’ pattern.

At the last AGM I donated these gloves to the KHF as a symbol of our connection with the aspirations of the Early Knitting History Group (EKHG) on which we were founded. They were made for me by Alison Thomson, the wife of the former vicar of Sanquhar and we had replaced the traditional date, which was worked into one wrist, with the EKHG initials. My initials are on the other glove.

The history and symbolism of Sanquhar knitting is well recorded:-, and in Richard Rutt’s ‘History of Handknitting’, pages 199-202.

Knitting History Forum/Early Knitting History Group Reconstruction Knitted Sanquhar Gloves courtesy of Kirstie Buckland, being worn by Chair Prof. Sandy Black at the KHF AGM in Leiden 2019. PLEASE DO NOT USE IMAGE WITHOUT PERMISSION
Sandy Black wearing the EKHG/KHF gloves at the 2019 KHF AGM in Leiden

The gloves give us links with our group’s history, with British textile history, with Montse Stanley’s KRL* and with our loyal supporters. I hope that others will supply or suggest their own items, pictures or stories of direct significance to KHF to inspire and continue the achievements and independence on which we were founded. It would provide somewhere interesting to direct old friends and potential members who ask what we are doing.

Meanwhile Australians are being asked to knit pouches to comfort baby marsupials orphaned by their tragic bush fires, a new challenge for knitting.

Kirstie Buckland

* In 1999 the collection of EKHG co-founder Montse Stanley, including the Montse Stanley Knitting Reference Library, was acquired by the University of Southampton Library. Further information is available here:

Dr Karen Finch

It is with great sadness we announce the passing of Dr Karen Finch OBE, esteemed academic, pioneer of textile conservation and Honorary President of the Knitting History Forum since 2006. We extend our sincere condolences to her family and friends at this time and give thanks for her generosity, her friendship and her extraordinary contribution to textile and knitting history.

A brief and personal profile of Karen was written by fellow Knitting History Forum founder member, Kirstie Buckland, in September 2015, with a follow-up post last October. One of Karen’s many lasting achievements was to found the Textile Conservation Centre at Hampton Court, now incorporated into the University of Glasgow’s Centre for Textile Conservation. Frances Lennard, Professor of Textile Conservation at the Centre, has written a moving notice on the Textile Conservation blog.

Prof Sandy Black

Our Chair, Sandy Black, has provided us with a biographical sketch. Visit our Resources section for this and more Knitting History Profiles.

Prof Sandy Black
Professor of Fashion and Textile Design and Technology
Centre for Sustainable Fashion
London College of Fashion
University of the Arts London

I am a designer, author, editor and academic researcher, publishing widely on knitwear and textiles, fashion, technology and sustainability. My major books on the subject of knitting history and design are: Knitting: Fashion, Industry, Craft (V&A Publishing 2012), covering 1700 years of knitting history and technology through the lens of the V&Aโ€™s extensive collection and other key examples; Knitwear in Fashion (Thames & Hudson 2002 & 2005) examining design and innovation in knitwear in 20th century fashion and the arts; and Sandy Black Original Knitting (Unwin Hyman, 1987) a book of 30 innovative knitwear designs. I have also published two pioneering books on fashion and sustainability: Eco Chic the Fashion Paradox (Black Dog Publishing 2008 & 2011) and The Sustainable Fashion Handbook (Thames & Hudson 2012). I founded and co-edit the Routledge journal: Fashion Practice: Design, Creative Process and the Fashion Industry, published since 2009.

KHF Chair, Prof Sandy Black, introduces speaker Dr Amy Twigger Holroyd, at the 2014 Knitting History Conference
KHF Chair, Prof Sandy Black, introduces speaker Dr Amy Twigger Holroyd, at the 2014 Knitting History Conference

My career has followed an unconventional path in industry and academia. I crossed disciplines from sciences and mathematics education to creative arts, textiles and fashion design, ran a successful fashion knitwear business, then joined higher education as a lecturer, becoming director of academic programmes and finally research professor. With interests in both the sciences and the arts, I studied BSc Mathematics at University College London, but also loved making things by knitting, crochet and sewing. I became inspired by the creative potential of the knitted stitch as a unit of design to create patterns and images on graph paper for knitting. The link between mathematics and knitting was little understood in academic education at the time, so I forged my own independent career path, becoming an entrepreneurial selfโ€“taught knitwear designer and businesswoman. Supporting myself initially by teaching numeracy to adults, I built a creative business as Design Director of Sandy Black Knitwear Ltd, designing and manufacturing ready-to-wear knitwear and unique knitting yarn and pattern kits for the international fashion market, selling to prestigious fashion stores worldwide (UK, USA, Japan, Italy, Germany, Australia, Canada etc). My work was part of a British โ€˜knitwear revolutionโ€™, a craft-led design movement that influenced the wider fashion industry. The Knitwear Revolution (Bell and Hyman,1983), a book by respected fashion writer Suzy Menkes, featured knitwear patterns from 20 designers with my own Vase of Flowers angora coat on the cover. I have continuallly championed the practice and study of knitted textiles and knitwear and curated the exhibition The New Knitting which toured the UK in 1997 and from 2000-2002.

After 15 years in business, I entered the higher education sector, first directing the undergraduate academic programmes in textiles and fashion at University of Brighton, then joining London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London, to develop and lead the multi-disciplinary MA Fashion Studies programme. For the last decade I have focused on supervising PhD research and developed research projects on design for sustainability and knitwear design using advanced technologies. As part of my Considerate Design initiative in 2007-2009, I researched personalisation and fit of knitwear towards reducing waste, a project exhibited at the Science Museum London 2010-11. In spring 2015, I undertook a Leverhulme International Academic Fellowship at Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand, investigating the application of mathematical concepts to 3D knit contruction, an ongoing project.

Dr Karen Finch

From 2006 to 2018, Dr Karen Finch (OBE, D.Litt, FIIC, FRSA) was Honorary President of the Knitting History Forum. As textile conservator and specialist, Dr Finchโ€™s warm personality and depth of knowledge enlivened early meetings. She delivered a paper on Needle Knitting in 1996 and spoke again in 2006 on archaeological finds from Copenhagen. Kirstie Buckland, a founding KHF member and herself an authority on early knitting, visited Karen at her home in summer 2015:

Dr Karen Finch OBE. Summer, 2015. Photo by Kirstie Buckland.
Dr Karen Finch OBE. Summer, 2015.

Karen Finch was born to a farming family in Denmark in 1921. She trained as a weaver and textile specialist, then married Norman Finch and moved to England in 1945. Here she quickly established her authority through the Royal School of Needlework and the V&A, voicing her concern about the lack of proper scientific conservation methods for vulnerable textiles. She began holding training classes for conservators in their beautiful house in Ealing but these classes quickly outgrew the house and in 1975 premises in Hampton Court Palace were secured for this purpose and the Textile Conservation Centre (TCC) took shape, culminating in purpose-built studios being attached to Winchester School of Art.

Dr Karen Finch OBE. Detail of a Textile Conservation Centre (TCC) 40th anniversary tribute volume. Photo by Kirstie Buckland.
Dr Karen Finch OBE. Detail of Textile Conservation Centre (TCC) 40th anniversary tribute.

Dr Finch was the founder and first Principal of the TCC, known, respected and admired worldwide. Her contribution over the subsequent forty years was marked this summer by a ceremony when a unique volume of comments, extracts and pictures compiled by some of those conservators was presented to her. We are fortunate that at my suggestion to re-establish the former Early Knitting History Group (1993-2006), Karen immediately agreed to stand for President and was unanimously elected to that position at our inaugural meeting.

She is still greatly loved by her many friends, amongst whom I hope I can be counted. We first met over a Grenadier cap in 1975, and have since shared a lot of information and fun. Karen now lives with her daughter and family in Walthamstow where her spirit and sense of humour continues to engage all who go there.

Kirstie Buckland, September 2015.

Karen sadly passed away in 2018. Visit the Karen Finch Textiles website to learn more about Karen, her life and her legacy and explore the archives of her pioneering work.

All photos courtesy of Kirstie Buckland.